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There is usually an indicator number to tell you how much gold was used. They both mean the same. This is the best form of plated gold. It should last at least one lifetime and more.
They can range from 8K to 24K to There are various ways to indicate the purity of gold. Most are controlled by your government and are to certify that the piece of gold you have falls into an acceptable range of purity.
See my other guides if you want an in depth look at gold markings. Most unusual for jewellery. Some jewellers use a high carat plating on a lower carat gold piece to enhance the colour.
Unfortunately there is nothing to indicate this process as there is nothing illegal in this form of plating. It still 9K gold but which, over the years, may lose its bright yellow appearance.
There are no Hallmarks for this. Such a thick layer of gold means many of these old pieces are still good condition.
The problem though, is that some sellers do not stick to, or even know, the above standards and use the terminology loosely.
Standards like these are not universal and so are often open to abuse. Also, given that many of the items are not especially expensive, it is not financially viable and it is generally at least partially destructive to actually check just how thick the gold plating on your jewellery is or what technique or grade was used.
I feel robbed! I am new to bid or buy and bided for a gold fusion ring because it stated that the value was high on the add. Now after winning the bid and making payment I decided to do research!
Dumb The information about the value of the item should be correct! I was so excited to receive the first item I bided for on bidorbuy until now It is easier said than done, but don't let one rotten apple spoil your experience on this wonderful site.
You have now learned the hard way to do homework or research before hitting the "bid" or "buy" button. I always say that it is better to be safe than sorry and to read the entire listing But back onto the subject of gold fusion - personally I do not like the idea of this process I'm more of a "real thing" type of person , but it may appeal to some individuals.
I have noticed that over the years many of the major jewellery retail stores out there have opted for this type of jewellery - I am assuming because it is generally more affordable than some jewellery pieces.
Ultimately it is the seller's responsibility to be totally honest and accurate with their listing, and in some cases as is with the gold fusion process , perhaps it could even be an idea to give a link or a basic description of what it means in the listing - this way it protects both the buyer and the seller by being up front about the item, plus it serves to educate buyers in the process.
Anything that is plated will come off over a period of time. If you're allergic to certain metals, this could make your fingers black or green.
The second ring you refer to is a costume jewelery ring with a cz as centre stone and crystals as secondary stones. The first ring is definitely better quality and often you're lucky that the gold brush plating stays intact for a period of 12 - 18 months, depending on how you wear your ring.
Also always better to let price lead you From what I know its basically real gold plated over the metal, but the "real" gold is mixed with other stuff.
Geez, reading this thread, I'd say one is much better off with a Cobra grommet and some Brasso You need to be a member in order to leave a comment.
Sign up for a new account in our community. It's easy! Already have an account? Sign in here. Gold fusion, but is it gold?
Recommended Posts. Posted August 27, Share this post Link to post Share on other sites. Posted August 27, edited.
Posted August 17, Gold fusion, dipped, plated, rolled etc. Go to a professional jeweler for advise. Posted August 19, Posted October 4,Inspirationen für ein schöneres Zuhause Finden Sie Inspiration in fantastischen Innenarchitekturumgebungen, lassen Sie sich von unseren Kollektionen leiten oder erhalten Sie Tipps zu Trends und Innenarchitektur. Über das Produkt: Von:. Exellentes Essen Wild Wild West Bar Top Service. Vielen Dank für die Einreichung einer Bearbeitung. Besuchsdatum: August Wir verwenden Cookies, um Ihr Nutzererlebnis zu verbessern. Eigenes bild. Lernspiele Online Hier wählen Sie, ob die Leinwand mit oder ohne Selbstbaurahmen geliefert werden soll.
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For Me. In response to doubts about the lack of nuclear products, cold fusion researchers have tried to capture and measure nuclear products correlated with excess heat.
In the report presented to the DOE in , the reviewers' opinion was divided on the evidence for 4 He; with the most negative reviews concluding that although the amounts detected were above background levels, they were very close to them and therefore could be caused by contamination from air.
One of the main criticisms of cold fusion was that deuteron-deuteron fusion into helium was expected to result in the production of gamma rays —which were not observed and were not observed in subsequent cold fusion experiments.
Researchers in the field do not agree on a theory for cold fusion. This creates a high partial pressure, reducing the average separation of hydrogen isotopes.
However, the reduction in separation is not enough by a factor of ten to create the fusion rates claimed in the original experiment.
Electron screening of the positive hydrogen nuclei by the negative electrons in the palladium lattice was suggested to the DOE commission,  but the panel found the theoretical explanations not convincing and inconsistent with current physics theories.
Criticism of cold fusion claims generally take one of two forms: either pointing out the theoretical implausibility that fusion reactions have occurred in electrolysis setups or criticizing the excess heat measurements as being spurious, erroneous, or due to poor methodology or controls.
There are a couple of reasons why known fusion reactions are an unlikely explanation for the excess heat and associated cold fusion claims.
Because nuclei are all positively charged, they strongly repel one another. Paneth and Peters in the s already knew that palladium can absorb up to times its own volume of hydrogen gas, storing it at several thousands of times the atmospheric pressure.
This was also the belief of geologist Palmer, who convinced Steven Jones that the helium-3 occurring naturally in Earth perhaps came from fusion involving hydrogen isotopes inside catalysts like nickel and palladium.
Huizenga says they had misinterpreted the Nernst equation , leading them to believe that there was enough pressure to bring deuterons so close to each other that there would be spontaneous fusions.
Conventional deuteron fusion is a two-step process, [text 6] in which an unstable high-energy intermediary is formed:.
Experiments have observed only three decay pathways for this excited-state nucleus, with the branching ratio showing the probability that any given intermediate follows a particular pathway.
Only about one in one million of the intermediaries decay along the third pathway, making its products comparatively rare when compared to the other paths.
The known rate of the decay process together with the inter-atomic spacing in a metallic crystal makes heat transfer of the 24 MeV excess energy into the host metal lattice prior to the intermediary 's decay inexplicable in terms of conventional understandings of momentum and energy transfer,  and even then there would be measurable levels of radiation.
Cold fusion setups utilize an input power source to ostensibly provide activation energy , a platinum group electrode , a deuterium or hydrogen source, a calorimeter , and, at times, detectors to look for byproducts such as helium or neutrons.
Critics have variously taken issue with each of these aspects and have asserted that there has not yet been a consistent reproduction of claimed cold fusion results in either energy output or byproducts.
Some cold fusion researchers who claim that they can consistently measure an excess heat effect have argued that the apparent lack of reproducibility might be attributable to a lack of quality control in the electrode metal or the amount of hydrogen or deuterium loaded in the system.
Critics have further taken issue with what they describe as mistakes or errors of interpretation that cold fusion researchers have made in calorimetry analyses and energy budgets.
In , after Fleischmann and Pons had made their claims, many research groups tried to reproduce the Fleischmann-Pons experiment, without success.
A few other research groups, however, reported successful reproductions of cold fusion during this time. Iyengar and M. Groups that did report successes found that some of their cells were producing the effect, while other cells that were built exactly the same and used the same materials were not producing the effect.
The claims of cold fusion, however, are unusual in that even the strongest proponents of cold fusion assert that the experiments, for unknown reasons, are not consistent and reproducible at the present time.
Internal inconsistencies and lack of predictability and reproducibility remain serious concerns. The Panel recommends that the cold fusion research efforts in the area of heat production focus primarily on confirming or disproving reports of excess heat.
Some research groups initially reported that they had replicated the Fleischmann and Pons results but later retracted their reports and offered an alternative explanation for their original positive results.
The calculation of excess heat in electrochemical cells involves certain assumptions. Several researchers have described potential mechanisms by which this process could occur and thereby account for excess heat in electrolysis experiments.
Another assumption is that heat loss from the calorimeter maintains the same relationship with measured temperature as found when calibrating the calorimeter.
The ISI identified cold fusion as the scientific topic with the largest number of published papers in , of all scientific disciplines.
He tried to publish his theoretical paper "Cold Fusion: A Hypothesis" in Physical Review Letters , but the peer reviewers rejected it so harshly that he felt deeply insulted, and he resigned from the American Physical Society publisher of PRL in protest.
The number of papers sharply declined after because of two simultaneous phenomena: first, scientists abandoned the field; second, journal editors declined to review new papers.
Consequently, cold fusion fell off the ISI charts. The Journal of Fusion Technology FT established a permanent feature in for cold fusion papers, publishing over a dozen papers per year and giving a mainstream outlet for cold fusion researchers.
When editor-in-chief George H. Miley retired in , the journal stopped accepting new cold fusion papers. The decline of publications in cold fusion has been described as a "failed information epidemic".
Cold fusion reports continued to be published in a small cluster of specialized journals like Journal of Electroanalytical Chemistry and Il Nuovo Cimento.
In the Indian multidisciplinary journal Current Science published a special section devoted entirely to cold fusion related papers.
In the s, the groups that continued to research cold fusion and their supporters established non-peer-reviewed periodicals such as Fusion Facts , Cold Fusion Magazine , Infinite Energy Magazine and New Energy Times to cover developments in cold fusion and other fringe claims in energy production that were ignored in other venues.
The internet has also become a major means of communication and self-publication for CF researchers. Cold fusion researchers were for many years unable to get papers accepted at scientific meetings, prompting the creation of their own conferences.
Attendees at some of the early conferences were described as offering no criticism to papers and presentations for fear of giving ammunition to external critics,  thus allowing the proliferation of crackpots and hampering the conduct of serious science.
With the founding in of the International Society for Condensed Matter Nuclear Science ISCMNS ,  the conference was renamed the International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science    — for reasons that are detailed in the subsequent research section above — but reverted to the old name in Since , the American Physical Society APS has included cold fusion sessions at their semiannual meetings, clarifying that this does not imply a softening of skepticism.
On 22—25 March , the American Chemical Society meeting included a four-day symposium in conjunction with the 20th anniversary of the announcement of cold fusion.
Researchers working at the U. Although details have not surfaced, it appears that the University of Utah forced the 23 March Fleischmann and Pons announcement to establish priority over the discovery and its patents before the joint publication with Jones.
Hagelstein , who had been sending papers to journals from 5 to 12 April. The U. At least one patent related to cold fusion has been granted by the European Patent Office.
A patent only legally prevents others from using or benefiting from one's invention. However, the general public perceives a patent as a stamp of approval, and a holder of three cold fusion patents said the patents were very valuable and had helped in getting investments.
A Michael Winner film Bullseye! The film — a comedy — concerned conmen trying to steal scientists' purported findings. However, the film had a poor reception, described as "appallingly unfunny".
In Undead Science , sociologist Bart Simon gives some examples of cold fusion in popular culture, saying that some scientists use cold fusion as a synonym for outrageous claims made with no supporting proof,  and courses of ethics in science give it as an example of pathological science.
The plot of The Saint , a action-adventure film, parallels the story of Fleischmann and Pons, although with a different ending.
Despite the secret being lost with his death at the end of the episode, it is implied that another student elsewhere is on a similar track, and may well repeat Todtman's efforts.
In the Spider-Man episode "Dr. Octopus: Armed and Dangerous," Dr. Octavius's lifelong goal was to create a cold fusion reaction in a battery, to serve as an alternate energy source to nuclear reactors.
However, his attempts to do so resulted in a catastrophic explosion, fusing the robotic tentacles he was using to perform his experiments to his spine, turning him into Dr.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the Fleischmann—Pons claims of nuclear fusion at room temperature, and subsequent research.
For the original use of the term "cold fusion", see Muon-catalyzed fusion. For all other definitions, see Cold fusion disambiguation.
Not to be confused with Cold welding. Hypothetical type of nuclear reaction. Beaudette , p. Oriani et al. This had been in the scientific literature since It seems that the electrical conductivity of heavy water with lithium is considerably less than that of light water with lithium.
And this difference is more than enough to account for the heavy water cell running hotter Langmuir , pp.
It has also been applied to the number of published results, in Huizenga , pp. Sources: " Burden on the Examiner. Durham , Patent law essentials: a concise guide 2nd, illustrated ed.
Sheldon , How to write a patent application illustrated ed. We realise that the results reported here raise more questions than they provide answers Daley calculates between and researchers, with damage to their careers.
Archived from the original on 3 November Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. For your home Trade.
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